ACAD. DAN BERINDEI, The Breakdown of the Communism – Miracle or Inexorable Phenomenon
After 70 years of existence the „Soviet empire” collapsed. What led to the disappearence of the Soviet system was not a military defeat but its incapacity to keep the pace with the economical advance of the Western world.
The breakdown of the Communism was seen as a miracle by millions of people whose lives changed profoundly. Besides this perception, the change in system was also an inexorable phenomenon imposed by the laws of history. According to these laws oppression makes people fight for their freedom and a coercitive system can function only as long as it is economically and socially viable. Once the collapse began, it could not be stopped. That was the way the Communist system broke down and all Eastern European nations won back their freedom.
Dan Berindei - Historian, vice president of the
CATALIN-VALENTIN RAIU, The Principle and the Practice of Subsidiarity in Romanian Orthodoxy. I. The Interwar Period
Ortodoxy and subsidiarity are two visions that focus on the human person. Orthodox Churches should support the subsidiarity principle, as a framework for the dignity of human person, as Andrei Saguna’s statute provided. The option for a too
hierarchical Church in the post-communist period overlooks all debates on subsidiarity, although the Romanian context keeps the memory of subsidiarity stored in the interbelic trunck.
Catalin-Valentin Raiu, graduated from the Faculty of Theology, University of Bucharest; Ph.D candidate at the Faculty of Political Sciences, University of Bucharest with the thesis „The Monography of the Bishop of Râmnic Noului Severin, Vartolomeiu Stănescu (1875-1954)”.
ROMINA SURUGIU, Revisions and Addenda: Constantin Radulescu-Motru on Romanian Culture in the Post-War Period 27
The personal notebooks („Revisions and addenda”, 1943-1952) of the Romanian philosopher Constantin Radulescu-Motru, represent a rich research material for studying the Romanian culture after the Second World War. The thinker, who lived the last decade of his life during the Communist regime, felt the need to explain, revise and re-analyze his philosophical and political ideas and attitudes. His notebooks, first published only 40 years after his death, contain valuable and interesting information, relevant for a proper understanding of the Romanian culture, society and their destiny after the events on
Romina Surugiu, PhD in Philosophy, she is a university lecturer within the Faculty of Journalism and Communication Sciences,
ACAD. PĂUN ION OTIMAN, The Collectivization of Romanian Agriculture
This paper is an overview of the main political, legal, and institutional frameworks in which the Communist regime, seating in
Păun Ioan Otiman – secretary-general of the
DAN CATANUS, The Agrarian Component of „the Right Deviation” inside the R.C.P., 1951-1952
During a meeting with a R.C.P. delegation, in March 1951, Stalin made accusations that in
Dan Cătănuş, PhD in History, is senior researcher with N.I.S.T.; Recent book: Romanian Intellectuals in the Communism Archives, Nemira, 2006 (co-author).
Ö. KOVÁCS JÓZSEF, The Social History of Collectivization in
In 1958-1961 a second wave of collectivization hit the Hungarian peasant household. In order to achieve their goals the Communist authorities used propagandistic tools as well as physical and psychologically violence against peasant who refused to join the agricultural cooperatives. The article presents the methods used by the Communist regime in
Ö. Kovács József is lecturer within the Faculty of History,
IRINA GRIDAN, Parallelisms and Convergences. I.Gh. Maurer in
This article is a first installment of a series devoted to the French-Romanian relations in the 60’s. The author pursues to throw light on the mechanisms set in motion after the diplomatic negotiations, leading to rapprochement between
Irina Gridan is an alumna of the Ecole Normale Superieure in
DRAGOS ZAMFIRESCU, “Perestroika” and „glasnost” in the Soviet Union or the Preliminaries of the Breakdown of the Communist Regimes in Eastern Europe
Perestroika and glasnost, initiated in the
Dragos Zamfirescu, PhD in History; he is specialized in Romanian right extremism in the interwar period and totalitarian models in the postwar period.
PETRE OPRIS, Nicolae Ceausescu and his Political Illusion: the Simultaneous Abolishment of NATO and the
Ceausescu’s political image in the West had been seriously affected by the Romanian economical crisis and the austerity measures that the Romanians had to deal with. Ceausescu’s idea of simultaneous abolishment of NATO and the Warsaw Treaty, his ambition to reimburse the entire
Petre Opris is PhD in History, lieutenant colonel (r). Recent book
The author analyses the process of collectivization from a broader period perspective, by emphasizing the consequences of land reforms of 1864, 1921 and 1945. The study achieves a structural analysis of collectivization (duration, intensity, dynamics, methods) as well as its consequences at psycho-cultural and demographic level. The last part of the study is dedicated to a concise presentation of the situation in agriculture after 1989, emphasizing the failure of the rural space modernization project and of structuring an agricultural field that would overcome the logic of a subsistence economy.
Florin Abraham is Ph.D in History; senior researcher with the NIST. Recent book:
ION CONSTANTIN, Parallel Destinies:
In 1918, both
Ion Constantin is Ph.D. in History, research scholar with NIST; former Romanian diplomat. Recent book: The Katyn Massacres, N.I.S.T., 2008 (co-author).
OCTAVIAN ROSKE, The Collectivization of Agriculture. Total Repression, 1957-1962, XXVII
The documents continue the series of historical accounts of the final stage of collectivisation of agriculture between 1958 and 1962. In that case, the abuses are objectively reflected by documents from
Octavian Roske, Ph.D., is senior researcher, Scientific Secretary of the NIST and associate professor with the Faculty of Foreign Languages,
CRISTINA DIAC, The Last Victim of the Collectivization of Agriculture: The Case of Ilie Tugui, 1963-1964
In 1963, Ilie Tugui, who was at that time officer at a miltary unit in Targu Mures, sent two anonymous letters to the Television and to „Scanteia”, R.C.P. main journal. Using a poetical and literary language, Tugui criticized the policy of the Great Powers, including the
Cristina Diac is PhD candidate,
VASILE BUGA, A hot summer in Romanian-Soviet Relations. The
The adoption of the R.C.P. Declaration in April 1964 generated a profound crisis at the level of Romanian-Soviet relations. In order to ease the tensions between the two parts, a R.C.P. delegation headed by Ion Gheorghe Maurer went to
Vasile Buga is Ph.D, senior researcher with N.I.S.T., coordinator of the Russian and
ANA-MARIA CATANUS, Mihai Botez on Intellectuals and the European Cultural Space
Mihai Botez was a mathematician, a researcher in future studies and also one of the most important Romanian dissidents. The document we publish is an essay that Botez wrote in 1985 for a conference organized in
Ana-Maria Catanus is PhD candidate and a researcher with N.I.S.T. Recent book: Romanian Intellectuals in the Communist Archives, Nemira, 2006 (co-author).
Ion Iliescu – president of
FLOREA DUMITRESCU, The Economic and Social Evolution in the Romanian Society in the ’60’s –’80’s, XX century
In this article, Florea Dumitrescu, former Minister of Finance and Governer of the National Bank during the Communist regime discusses a series of elements that founded Romania’s developemnt policy in the ’60’s –’80’s, XX century.
If initially the credits from the I.M.F. and the World Bank had an important role in Romanian economical development, afterwards the decision of the Romanian leadership to reimburse in advance the external debt created a lot of tensions in the realm of the national economy. The restrictive measures taken by the government in 1980-1989 led to an excessive depreciation of industrial equipment, decreasing the production quality and the diminishing of workers’ revenues.
Florea Dumitrescu – Minister of Finance, 1969-1978; he conducted the negociations with the I.M.F. and the World Bank; Governor of the National Bank, 1984 - March 1989; ambassador in
ION BAURCEANU, Remembrances from Aiud
Ion Baurceanu was born in 1931 in Comanesti-Covurlui –
Ion Baurceanu is a former political prisoner.
ALEXANDRU-MURAD MIRONOV, State Committee for Nuclear Energy
This material is a part of a research project entitled The Communist Regime Encyclopedia in
This material is a part of a research project entitled The Communist Regime Encyclopedia in
From 1955 and until 1990, the State Committee for Nuclear Energy was the Romanian official organization granted with full powers over coordinating, budgeting and controlling the development of atomic research and production on national scale. The Communist regime strongly encouraged this industry, first as a tool of economical modernization, then – during Nicolae Ceauşescu’s leadership – as a part of the envisaged autarchy. However, the centralization of the political decision in the area proved to be highly efficient, allowing a remarkable development of atomic and nuclear domain in
Alexandru-Murad Mironov is an assistant professor within History Department of the
FLORIN-RAZVAN MIHAI, The Commission of State Control
In 1949-1961, in Romania functioned the Commission of State Control (C.S.C.), which controlled the activity of the ministeries, the state institutions, economical organizations, executive organs of local state power, as well as mass organizations and military units.The Commission was subordinated to the Council of Ministers and was conducted by a chairman.
Florin-Razvan Mihai is research assistant with NIST. MA in International Relations, Faculty of History, University of
FLORI BALANESCU, Adriana Georgescu (1920-2005)
A law graduate, Adriana Georgescu was also a movie critic at „Universul literar” and nurse in a military hospital. In 1943 the Gestapo hunted her because of the chronicles she wrote of the German movies presented in the theaters from
Flori Balanescu – Researcher with NIST. Recent volume: Flori Stanescu – Paul Goma, Dialogue, Vremea Publishing House, 2008.
CRISTINA DIAC, Manea Mănescu (1916-2009)
After the 1989 revolution, Manea Mănescu was portrayed as an example of total obedience of Ceausescu couple. Neither his former colleagues remembered him differently, as seen in their memories. This is why certain biographical details extracted from Manea Mănescu’s R.C.P. cadre file may come as a surprise.
ANA-MARIA CATANUS, On liberty
This is a review of two books Seghei Dovlatov’s book The Compromise, Humanitas Publishing House,
CRISTINA DIAC, Dinu C. Giurescu, spectator of his own destiny: From Sovrom Constructions 6 to Romanian AcademyThis is a review of Dinu C. Giurescu’s book From Sovrom Constructions 6 to