Review of the National Institute for the Study of Totalitarianism
Volume XVIII Number 68-69 Winter 2010
Radu Ciuceanu, History as ballast, XXXV. A correspondence at least strange: Roosevelt-Churchill-Stalin, VI, p. 5-11
During World War II besides battlefields there were also high level confrontation strategies not only among enemies, but also allies. The article tries to decipher the hidden meanings of 1942 discussions between the allied leaders: W. Churchill, I.V. Stalin and F.D. Roosevelt concerning the opening of new fronts against Nazi Germany.
Keywords: Europe, World War II, allies, Nazi Germany, operation „Torch”.
Dorin-Demostene Iancu , Alfred Rosenberg on Nazism and Christianism, p. 12-20.
Alfred Rosenberg was one of the most important Nazi leaders. From his position within the regime he had an important opportunity to act against Christianity. The main causes of his way of thinking, the developement of his ideas, Hitler’s reaction, the way Goebbels actioned towards Rosenberg’s person and ideological thoughts are very important in understanding the impact over the Christians’ situation in Nazi Germany. The hatred against the Jews, which led to mass murder was one of the reasons Christianity was atacked and Jesus Christ himself disconsidered.
Rosenberg did not admit that he was wrong, not even at his trial, althought he had the chance. He died by hanging and he is known as the main Nazi ideologist beside Adolf Hitler.
Keywords: Nazism, Christianism, religion, ideology, anti-semitism.
Ioana Maria Cozma, Forms of Communist Propaganda in electoral campaigns, 1946-1948.A case study: Cluj county, p. 21-33
Since its first days of existence in the Soviet Union, one of the top priorities of the new communist regime was to create a new man, as part of a larger process of reevaluation of all values, necessary in order to create a brand new world. To accomplish this task, the Communist Party used on a massive scale, for the first time in world history, the instrument of the propaganda. In Romania, a country in which the process of stalinisation started on the 6th of March 1945, the first post-war elections offered a good opportunity for the communist propaganda machine to test its effectiveness, taking in consideration the consequences of the results of these elections for the Romanian Communist Party. This article explores the problems, results, ways of action and manifestation of the then-borning communist propaganda, with the occasion of the first two general elections in Romania after the Second World War.
Keywords: Communism, propaganda, manipulation, election campaign, women, peasantry, workmen, highbrows.
Narcis Popescu, Propaganda and satellization: The Party School of Social Sciences „A.A. Jdanov”,1948-1958, p. 34-46
This research study approaches the Sovietisation of Romania. The auspices under which the process of sovietization took place were specific to Stalinism. Using mainly the documents from National Archives „Propaganda and Agitation Party Department”, the article emphasizes the evolution of one of the most important instruments of Sovietization: The Party School of Social Sciences „A.A. Jdanov”.
Keywords: Communism, R.C.P., the Party School of Social Sciences „A.A. Jdanov”, political elites.
Mihaela Verzea, Theorizing the concept of Party-State: historiographical landmarks (I), p. 47-60
The aim of this article is to present the political regime of the State Party from the point of view of the hallmark political structures. This theoretical study exploits sources of foreign authors, concerned in presenting the institutional frame specific to the left totalitarian governments, starting first of all from the analysis of the Marxist-Leninist ideology and of the inspiration model, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
Keywords: State-Party, Marxism-Leninism, Communist Party of Soviet Union, political structures.
Ana Maria Cătănuş, The Phenomenon of Disidence in Soviet Union, 1965-1989, p. 61-85.
Soviet dissidence in its golden years, 1965-1982, was one of the most interesting episodes of the Post Stalin regime in Soviet Union.
With a wide range of manifestations form literary dissidence to the movement of human rights, Soviet dissidence played an important role not only in denouncing the abuses of power but also in forging new thinking models at society level. Focusing on R.S.F.S.R human right movement, the article defines concepts such as dissidence-dissident, emphasizes the types of dissident activity and portrays some of the emblematic figures of Soviet dissidence.
Keywords: Soviet Union, RSFSR, Communism, dissidence, human rights.
Ö. Kovács József, The historical experience of violence in political dictatorship, p. 86-105.
Conducting an interdisciplinary analysis, the author focuses on the phenomenon of violence in modern and contemporary history. Therefore, the features of political dictatorship of the XX century (National-Socialism and Communism) are placed in the forefront of the research. An analytical presentation of historiography dedicated to post 1945 East-Germany dictatorship finds its place within this comprehensive subject. The author of the article also approaches the connections between contemporary experiences regarding violence, memorizing traumas and taboos.
Keywords: GDR, Communism, violence, dictatorship.
Puica Buhoci, History and fraud, I, p. 106-125.
The publication of documents from the archives of former Securitate (CNSAS) concerning the National Resistance Movement in Oltenia has been a constant focus of the research programmes of NIST. The article we publish is a case study of how history can be manipulated by the mysterious disappearance from the archives of a document that has been previously published in the book The National Resistance Movement in Oltenia, volume V, edited by Radu Ciuceanu and Puica Buhoci in 2007. The author publishes not only the authenticated copy of the missing document but also new sources that prove beyond doubt the veridical character of document’s content.
Keywords: Romania, Anti-communism, the National Resistance Movement, Securitate.
Florin Abraham, Between moral and legal: the issue of responsibility from the perspective of the Romanian lustration law, p. 126-140.
The study analyses the issue of responsibility within the communist regimes from the perspective of the Romanian lustration law. The research is structured around three sub-themes: the relation between guilt and sanction in democratic regimes; a succinct analysis of the lustration issue in Europe; a presentation of the initiatives concerning the adoption of a lustration law in Romania; the concrete analysis of the responsibility issue in light of the law adopted by the Romanian Parliament in 2010. The main conclusion of the analysis is that the responsibility concerning the establishment and preservation of the communist regime cannot be treated in terms of collective guilt, as provided by the lustration law, but can be attributed to some individuals or groups that commonly participated in taking some decisions. Therefore, punishments must be applied according to direct, concrete and undisputed responsibilities, by means of trials in which the accused can plead their innocence.
Keywords: Romania, Lustration, Post-communism, Democracy, Responsibility
Raluca Spiridon, A Vision of the Law and Order in 1929 Romania: the Law of the State Police, p. 141-166
The explanatory memorandum that precedent the General Law on the organization of the state police 21 July 1929 brings into focus the fundamental principles that gave rise to the major reorganization of the work order and information.
The document is important in that it reworks the history of the institution and the relationship between politics and administration, presented the issue obscured and distorted in the communist era.
Keywords: law enforcement, interwar Romania, democracy, public service.
Vasile Buga, Comintern Standpoint and the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact, p. 167-180
The analytic material written by the researchers from the Institute of Marxism Leninism of PCUS’ Central Committee and the International Section of CC of PCUS presents the confusion created among Comintern’s Communist parties by the signing on 23 august 1939 of the Non-aggression Treaty between Soviet Union and fascist Germany. The document emphasizes in what way Stalin’s indications affected the orientation of Communist parties in a crucial moment of the battle against fascist peril.
Keywords: Soviet Union, Germany, Comintern, Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact.
Florin Şandru, The Comintern and the Romanian Communists as seen by the Police Department of the Capital City, 1941, II, p. 181-196
The article reproduces the second part of the work The unmasking of Communism in Romania compiled in 1941 by police commissioner Nicolae Turcu. Outlawed by the Romanian authorities RCP continued to spread its ideology through legal camouflaged established organizations. These organizations had as a purpose the protection of social and professional rights of social categories such as syndicats, students, lawyers, writers, the achievement political objectives of national minorities or fighting for principles such as peace, disarmament, antifascism. Shortly after they had been created, all these organizations set up upon the Comitern’s indications and considered to be a menace for state safety were declared illegal by the authorities.
Keywords: Romania, Communism, Comitern, RCP, anti-fascism
Dan Cătănuş, Party discipline and former Communists in illegality. The case of Constantin Agiu, 1955, p. 197-219
In October 1955, Constantin Agiu, former Communist activist in illegality, was subjected to investigation by a Party Commission. The investigation was related to the discussions Agiu had after 1953 with general Ion Eremia and other Communist Party members from illegality times. The participants to these discussions encouraged by the “new course” promoted by Moscow raised some issues related to the economic policy of RCP, selection and promotion of Party cadres, the repression some party members were subjected to. In spite the intimidation, Agiu sustained that “no one can stop the public to judge things for themselves and discuss them openly”.
Keywords: Romania, Communism, RWP, factionism.
Octavian Roske, The Collectivization of Agriculture. Total Repression, 1957-1962, XXIX, p. 220-231
The documents continue the series of historical accounts of the final stage of collectivization of agriculture between 1957 and 1962. The testimonies selected in this issue illustrate the diverse means of repression the communist authorities used in order to step up the collectivization process in Romania after 1957.
Keywords: Romania, collectivization, repression
Carmen Rădulescu, Uniunea Arhitecţilor din R.P.R./R.S.R., p. 232-239
The Union of Architects in R.P.R./R.S.R was the architects’ mass organization that guided its members’ activity during the Communist regime. Set up in November 1952 after the Soviet model of creation unions, the Union of Architects in R.P.R./R.S.R functioned in the same framework until April 1990 when it was reorganized according the Law 127/24 April 1990. During the ’50’s, the evolution of architecture was dramatically influenced by the ideological and political factors, while the only tolerated architectural style was the one Soviet inspiration, socialist realist, which was applied in all cultural domaines. Therefor, art became state art, serving the interests of state and politcs.
Keywords: Romania, Communism, Arhitecture, Socialist Realism, Unions of creation.
Alexandru-Murad Mironov, Writers’ Union of Romanian People’s Republic/Socialist Republic of Romania, p.239-243
Professional association of writers in Socialist Romania, Writers’ Union has been a real Ministry of Literature between 1948 and 1989. Copying a Soviet model, this specific organization of the Communist regime managed not only the needs of writers, but also helped in strenghtening the party control over the arts. Without the coercitive force of the State, the Writers’ Union distributed all the benefits: houses, trips, access to special stores, resorts (including former Royal castles) and reserved restaurants. Further more, the institution was the only legal collector of copyrights, on behalf of creators. These financial assets largely rewarded all those who ideologically served the regime.
Keywords: Communism, ideology, literature, Soviet model.
Ana-Maria Rădulescu, Nifon Criveanu (1889-1970), p. 245-249
Nifon Criveanu (1889-1970), bishop of Husi (1933-1939) and metropolitan of Oltenia (1939-1945), was the first Orthodox Romanian hierarch who was discarded from his position by the Communist regime. The reason for his removal was related to his symphaties towards Antonescu’s regime and his missionary and „antisoviet”activity in Transnistria between 1942-1943.
Keywords: Romania, Orthodox Church, Communism, repression.
Cristina Diac, Ioan Totu (1931-1992), p. 250-255
Recent discovered documents, such as autobiographical materials, verbal and written testimonies of those who knew Ion Totu, led to the reconstruction of a thorough biography of Totu. Although he worked in executive and party structures, including Minister of Foreign Affairs, he considered himself more in the terms of a macro economy specialist. That was the reason for Totu to be appointed First Deputy Prime Minister to coordinate the activities and the economic-financial institutions.
Keywords: Romania, R.C.P., politics, economics.